Direct match

Direct start is the starting system in which the electric motor receives full voltage at the moment of departure. The factors that prevent the starting of the motors directly from the secondary network are the power of the motor being greater than the maximum allowed by the local concessionaire and that the load to be moved needs slow and progressive drive. This is the simplest starting method because no special motor drive devices are used. Only contactors, circuit breakers or switches are used which allow the motor to be supplied with full voltage at the moment of starting.

The cage rotor motor can start at full load and with current increasing from four to eight times the nominal current, according to type and number of poles. The conjugate in the starting achieves almost 1.5 times the nominal torque. The motors can only be started directly from the mains if the following conditions are satisfied: the rated capacity of the network satisfactorily high so as to make the motor starting current irrelevant; the starting current of the motor of small value because its power is low; the starting of the motor is made without load, which reduces the duration of the starting current.

Corrective maintenance

Corrective maintenance should be done when facilities and equipment operate as individual units, or are separated by parts in the manufacturing process, with a unit supplying the failure without affecting the production process immediately. In a factory that operates with several equipment with similar functions, it can be concluded that it is cheaper, easier and 174107.00 leeson quicker to allow the engine to stop and then replace it with another that is already refurbished or even a new one.

The replaced electric motor is recovered and kept available for future use, verifying its performance to meet energy conservation policy.


The maintenance industry must have in stock units capable of replacing damaged engines efficiently. This method is indicated when the cost of repair is greater than the cost of acquisition and as a consequence, the damaged motor is replaced by another new engine of greater reliability.

It is important to emphasize that a planning of the repair method, as well as the necessary tooling preparation, must be carried out. Specifically, the planned replacement is a corrective maintenance, used in productive systems sectors that use large numbers of small, low-cost engines.

Calculating the ideal power

For a quick and simple design of an electric motor, we perform a calculation to know the power that we will need. Then we will see what we have available in the market and what is the commercially available engine to attend us, finally, learn what aspects we should be careful to use the equipment. We must not forget to store the motors in places free from vibration, humidity, rapid or intense heat exchanges, rodents and insects. Before installing the motor, rotate the rotor by hand to check the condition of the bearings. If the engine is not used for more than six months, the bearings must be lubricated.

According to item 5.4 described in ABNT Standard NBR 7094, rated power of a motor is the mechanical power available on the shaft, which will follow the same working regime definition vxcb rab watherproof. We have two existing work regimes, the continuous and the intermittent, which is the period in which the engine will be working with its specific loads.

Real work regimes sometimes do not respect the rule and end up being irregular, so in their analysis, always choose to choose the work regime that requires more mechanical application.

How to simplify an induction motor

With the installation of a capacitor in the terminal bar of the induction electric motor we can achieve that the maximum power transmitted to the load rises and this maximum happens in a higher voltage level. There is a maximum number of induction motors that can be connected in parallel, since the equivalent rated power of all motors must be less than the mechanical power corresponding to the maximum electrical power that can be transmitted to the terminal bar of the motors.

The internal load bar of the induction motor model will always be more charged than the terminal bar because there is an additional active power transmission effort from the terminal bar to the inner bar. However, the difference is so small, because the motor impedances are small when compared to those of the system, which, in order to analyze the conditions of voltage stability, it is enough to evaluate the indexes of the terminal bar. The indices calculated on the induction motor terminal bar are different. We conclude that simplifying the model of the induction motor by its injections of power consumed is inappropriate when it comes to the calculation of the voltage stability evaluation indices.

Squirrel Cage Rotor

The motor with this type of rotor is the most used in the industry today and it has the advantage of being more economical in relation to the single-phase motors both in its construction as in its use. By choosing the ideal starter method, it will have a much wider range of applications. The squirrel cage rotor is made by a core of ferromagnetic plates, isolated from each other, where aluminum bars (conductors) are placed parallel to each other and joined at their ends by two conducting rings, also in aluminum, that short circuit the drivers. The motor stator is also made by a laminated ferromagnetic core, which in the cavities from which are placed the windings fed by the three-phase AC network 23024 CC/C3W33.

The advantage that results from this rotor in relation to the coiled rotor is a faster, more practical and cheaper armature construction. The conductor bars of the cage are normally placed with a certain inclination to avoid the cracks and noises that result from the electromagnetic action between the teeth of the stator and rotor cavities. The main disadvantage is that the starting torque is reduced in relation to the current absorbed by the stator. It is essentially a constant speed motor.

Shaded Poles Engine

The shaded pole motor is also called distorted field motor is the simplest, most reliable and economical of single-phase induction motors. There are several types constructively, and one of the most common forms is that of protruding poles where each pole will have a part generally 25% to 35% of the same, embraced by a shorted copper loop.

The current induced in this loop causes the flow which cuts it to suffer a delay in relation to the flow of the part not embraced by it. The result of this is similar to a rotating field that moves in the direction of the uncaged portion to the embraced portion of the pole, producing the torque that will cause the electric motor to break and achieve nominal rotation. The direction of rotation, therefore, will depend on the side where the part of the pole is located. Accordingly, the distorted field motor has a single direction of rotation and can be reversed by changing the position of the rotor shaft tip relative to the stator. There are other methods to get the rotation inversion, but much more expensive.

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Asynchronous Electric Motors

Asynchronous motors are called induction motors, they represent the majority of the electric motors that exist in the market. These motors have a short-circuit rotor, that is to say, formed by aluminum bars that are installed in the cores of the grooves of the magnetic plate and at the ends are connected to each other by means of a ring (short-circuit ring). Because of this, the variable magnetic field created in the stator induces sinusoidal currents in the rotor cage bars, which in turn creates a magnetic field in the rotor that opposes the stator field. They may also have a coiled rotor, and this feature is less commonly used.

Since poles with the same polarity repel each other, we have the beginning of a force in the direction of rotation of the rotor. This rotates with a speed a little slower to the speed of synchronism and because of this characteristic, this type of motors can start directly from the network, without help of any other motor or even of devices of power electronics. An important aspect of this type of motors is the difference between the speed of synchronism and the speed rotor, called slip or slip vm3538.

Principle of Operation of Asynchronous Electric Motors

The permanent magnet is hung on a metal disk, secured by a pin in an iron bearing and the magnetic flux produced by the permanent magnet flows through the magnetic circuit series consisting of the permanent magnet, the air gaps and the iron plate. When rotating the permanent magnet, the disc that is under the magnet and also rotates. The disk follows the rotational movement of the permanent magnet due to the circulation of induced currents. These currents are induced because of the relative movement between the disk and the permanent magnet.

Induced currents tend to produce electric motors, according to Lenz’s law, a magnetic south pole on the disk under the rotating magnetic north pole of the permanent magnet, as well as a magnetic north pole on the disk under the rotating magnetic south pole of the permanent magnet. As the magnet proceeds its movement in relation to the disk, the induction of parasitic currents and magnetic poles with opposing polarities continues. In this way, the disk rotates in the same direction as the permanent magnet, but must rotate at a slower speed to have a relative velocity between the permanent magnet and the metal disk.

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Há várias opções de investimento

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